Climatic Research Unit : Data : Temperature

Temperature station data

Station Header File

  1. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Station Number with a single additional character making a field of 6 integers. WMO numbers comprise a 5 digit sub-field, where the first two digits are the country code and the next three digits designated by the National Meteorological Service (NMS). Some country codes are not used. If the additional sixth digit is a zero, then the WMO number is or was an official WMO number. Two examples are given at the end. Many additional stations are grouped beginning 99****. Station numbers in the blocks 72**** to 75**** are additional stations in the United States.
  2. Station latitude in degrees and tenths (-999 is missing), with negative values in the Southern Hemisphere
  3. Station longitude in degrees and tenths (-1999 is missing), with negative values in the Eastern Hemisphere
  4. Station Elevation in metres (-999 is missing)
  5. Station Name
  6. Country
  7. First year of monthly temperature data
  8. Last year of monthly temperature data
  9. Data Source (see below)
  10. First reliable year (generally the same as the first year)

Station data file

Station sources

This is a two digit source code, which was introduced in Jones and Moberg (2003) and Brohan et al. (2006). References to sources are in these publications. Few stations have a single source of data due to real-time updating (from WMO's CLIMAT messages or decadal World Weather Record publications or from the publication Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The code given here is therefore where most of the data series has been obtained. The different GHCN sources relate to the priority given in merging (see Table 1 of Jones and Moberg, 2003)

Examples of WMO station numbers

Further information on the WMO numbering system is given here:


Brohan, P., Kennedy, J., Harris, I., Tett, S.F.B. and Jones, P.D., 2006: Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006548.

Jones, P.D. and Moberg, A., 2003: Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001. J. Climate 16, 206-223.


station-data.zipStation data
headers.txtHeader lines from above


Last updated: July 2011, Phil Jones