Climatic Research Unit : Data : Temperature
Temperature station data
Station Header File
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Station Number with a single additional character making a field of 6 integers.
WMO numbers comprise a 5 digit sub-field, where the first two digits are the country code and the next three digits designated by the National Meteorological Service (NMS).
Some country codes are not used. If the additional sixth digit is a zero, then the WMO number is or was an official WMO number.
Two examples are given at the end. Many additional stations are grouped beginning 99****.
Station numbers in the blocks 72**** to 75**** are additional stations in the United States.
- Station latitude in degrees and tenths (-999 is missing), with negative values in the Southern Hemisphere
- Station longitude in degrees and tenths (-1999 is missing), with negative values in the Eastern Hemisphere
- Station Elevation in metres (-999 is missing)
- Station Name
- First year of monthly temperature data
- Last year of monthly temperature data
- Data Source (see below)
- First reliable year (generally the same as the first year)
Station data file
- Header file - as above
- Year followed by 12 monthly temperatures in degrees and tenths (with -999 being missing)
This is a two digit source code, which was introduced in Jones and Moberg (2003) and Brohan et al. (2006). References to sources are in these publications. Few stations have a single source of data due to real-time updating (from WMO's CLIMAT messages or decadal World Weather Record publications or from the publication Monthly Climatic Data for the World). The code given here is therefore where most of the data series has been obtained.
The different GHCN sources relate to the priority given in merging (see Table 1 of Jones and Moberg, 2003)
- 10 - from earlier CRU work (from World Weather Record volumes, published by the Smithsonian Institution and NOAA/WMO from the 1920s onwards)
- 30 - GHCN and for Australia (from Bureau of Meteorology)
- 31 - GHCN
- 32 - ALOCLIM (Austria)
- 33 - NACD/NORDKLIM (Scandinavia and NW Europe)
- 34 - NACD/NORDKLIM (Scandinavia)
- 35 - IMPROVE project
- 36 - CHTD (Canada)
- 37 - GHCN (principally fUSSR but also some other regions)
Examples of WMO station numbers
Further information on the WMO numbering system is given here:
- 010010 - Jan Mayen, Norway.
01 is the code for Norway, and 001 the number designated by the Norwegian NMS.
The sixth character here is a zero.
- 024581 - Stockholm, Sweden.
02 is the code for Sweden and Finland, with 458 the code once used for a station in the Stockholm area.
The sixth character is a not zero and this means the series is likely from a site that is different from an official WMO location.
Brohan, P., Kennedy, J., Harris, I., Tett, S.F.B. and Jones, P.D., 2006:
Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850.
J. Geophys. Res. 111, D12106,
Jones, P.D. and Moberg, A., 2003:
Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: An extensive revision and an update to 2001.
J. Climate 16, 206-223.
Last updated: July 2011, Phil Jones